what is pronoun ? describe 8 kinds of pronoun with examples? In this article we will cover this area of pronoun in details.
In the bellow sentence-
- Hari ia absent, because Hari is ill.
- Hari is absent, because he is ill.
If we notice, in the first sentence Hari, noun repeated twice. But in the second sentence, ‘He‘ pronoun is used instead of the noun Hari and it sounds good. So a word that is used instead of a noun is called a Pronoun. ,(Pronoun means for a noun,) It is better to avoid repetition of a noun in a sentence.
Pronouns are: –
|I , myself, himself, yourself, they, it, these ,that etc.|
There are commonly 8 kinds of pronoun in english grammar which are discussed below in details-
Personal pronouns are those kinds of pronoun that refers to persons or things. These are,
|I , we, you, my, he, she, they, it|
- I am a good boy.
- We are young.
- You are a gentle man.
- He ( she, it,) is young.
In the above sentence, ,( I, we, you, he, she, it, they,) are called Personal pronoun, because they stand for the three persons.
Personal pronoun has three different forms.
1. First person: The speaker or the person who is speaking
2. Second person: The person spoken to, or the person with whom the speaker is talking
3.Third person: The person spoken of ,(Except the first and the second person all are third person,)
Lets take an example to understand clearly, I am talking to you about Ram. In this sentence, I’ is a first person You‘ is a second person and Ram‘ is a third person respectively.
|Note: These three persons has singular and plural forms. According to the persons and number, the verbs of a sentence are used. For example. He goes to school everyday. Here, the verb go takes suffix -es, because ‘He’ is third person singular number.|
Table: Persons and their numbers:
|Singular number||Plural number|
my, mine, me (Possessive )
our, ours, us, (Possessive)
|singular/plural are same|
he, she, it ,(Nominative)
his, her, hers, its, (Possessive)
him, her, (Accusative)
their, theirs, (Possessive)
Important uses of it
a) ‘It’ pronoun is used generally for the things without life; as,
- Here is your book; take it away.
- Shillong is a hill city; it is very beautify.
b) ‘It’ pronoun is used for animals, unless we can say as male or female; as,
- The horse fell and broke its leg.
- The dog loves its master.It is baby.
c) ‘It’ pronoun is also used for young child, unless we clearly determine their sex; as,
- When I saw the child it was crying.
- That baby has torn its clothes.
d) Sometimes, ‘ it’ pronoun is used as a subject to form a sentence. as,
- It is a dog.
- It is a book.
It is another kinds of pronoun ,when the subject and the object of a sentence indicates the same things or person and the pronoun used as an object, that pronouns are called Reflexive Pronoun. Reflexive pronoun ends with the suffix -self or – selves. For example,
- He did the sum himself.
- We went there ourselves.
In the above sentence subject and object are the same person who did the action and himself and ourselves used as an object, so himself and ourselves are reflexive pronoun.
1 Reflexive are:-
|myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself , ourselves, yourselves, themleves.|
Reflexive Pronouns are form in the following way:-
Notes: Sometimes Reflexive pronouns are called as an emphasising pronoun according to their uses. For example;
- I myself did this .
- Ram himself went there.
In these sentence myself and himself are emphasising pronoun because they emphaises action of the subject ‘ I’ and ‘Ram’ respectively.
This is used instead of a noun and these are used to denote specific persons or things.
Demonstrative pronouns are:-
|This, that, these, those,|
- This is a dog.
- These are dogs.
- That is a pen.
- Those are fans.
In the above sentence This, that, these, those, are demonstrative pronoun.They shows or demonstrate specific things or person .Their meaning depends on the context.
These pronoun are used to refer to the person or things in a general way not in a definite way.
- Any of these books will do.
- Some are born great.
- One cannot get everything one desire.
- Nobody will believe it. etc.
|None, all, one, anyone, somebody,nobody, some, any, etc.|
- Points to be remember:
- Any and All are used both as singular and plural number.
- Any of these books is enough.,(.any is singular,).
- Are there any books in the house,,?,(any is plural,)
- All is not lost.(all is singular,) All are well. here all is plural,)
- None‘ always used as negative.
- None of them came.
- None likes a fool.
‘One’ when used in a general sense, then it is usually understood as reffering to a person not a number.
This kinds of pronoun which are used to make questions are called Interrogative Pronoun. For example,
- Who is he ?
- Whom do you call,?
- What did you say,?
- Which is you father,?
Relative kinds of pronouns are those pronoun which are used to introduce a relative clause. These pronoun combines two sentence and indicates the relationship of the subordinate clause to the rest of the sentence.
Relative Pronouns are:-
|Who, whom, that, which, whose,|
- This is the boy who stood first.
- This is the pen which I lost.
- This is the man whose name is Raju.
- Give him what he wants.
7. Distributive :
Distributive is another kinds of pronoun, distributive pronouns are Each, either, neither are called Distributive Pronoun.And these pronoun refers to person or things one at a time. Each, either and neither are always treated as a singular and takes singular verbs.like
Look at the following sentences;
- Each of the boys is honest.
- Either of the two boys was present.
- Neither of the two boys can do this.
|Note: If we notice the above sentences, all the verbs is, was, do, used in these sentences are singular .When distributive pronouns are used in a sentence it takes singular verb.|
Each can be used for two or more persons or things, it is used for small number. Every is not normally used for small numbers. But each can be used for more than two when the number is usually defined. Both takes singular verbs as you can see in the above sentences.
8. Reciprocal :
It shows the relation on each other between two or more than two persons or things.
Each other and one another are the two only Reciprocal Pronouns.These are used objectively. For example,
If Raju gave Sita a book and Sita gave Raju a book, we can say that they gave each other books. is not it ?
- Ram and Rahim love each other.
- The dogs are biting with one another.
- They all gave gifts to one another.
Thus from the above discussion,of the kinds of pronoun-8 kinds of pronouns with examples, we can summarise that a Pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun.Commonly there are eight kinds of Pronoun, namely 1.Personal Pronoun 2.Reflexive 3.Demostrative 4.Indefinite 5.Interrogative 6. Relative 7. Distributive 8. Reciprocal Pronoun.
Q. Write the correct form of Pronoun in the following-
- He is as good as —- .( I, me,)
- We scored as many goals as — .( they, them,)
- Let you and — try what we can do. ( I, me,)
- Nobody but —- was present. ( he, him,)
- Whom can I trust, if not —? ( he , him,)
Q. Correct the following sentences-
- Neither of these four vehicles will do.
- Either of three students is responsible for the loss.
- One should obey his elders.
- Every man and every woman have their own fascinations.
- Either Ramesh or Sita have left their book.
Most common grammatical mistakes in english speaking and writing here