Project method of teaching. It is a modern approach to education which come from John Dewey’s educational philosophy which is completely students centric. In this article we shall discuss about what is project method? Steps of project method, and merits and demerits of project methods in details.
What is project method?
A project method is a medium of instruction where students are given a number of projects or situation. The students choose their situation on their own then they plan to execute the project collectively. In this style of teaching the teacher works as a guide and not a dictator but a working partner.
Project method is a modern contribution to educational theory and practice. It was initiated by professor William Kilpatrick, a pragmatist who is also known as the father of the project method. According to him project method is –
“A whole hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment”
Project method is a problematic act which is carried out and completed in a natural settings. It lays great emphasis on taking the people into confidence and nothing is imposed upon the students from the teacher or guide. who take the responsibility of the work. The curriculum content and the technique are also considered from the student’s point of view. So this method is a completely student-centric where students learn things by experience. Infect this method is better described as learning by doing.
Some of the important definitions which will help to understand the project method better.
According to J.A Stevenson:
“A project is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting”
According to Snedden:
“project is a unit of educative work in which the most prominent feature is some form of positive and concrete achievement”
5 Steps of project method:
Five steps of this method are in the following-
- Selection of the project
- Proper planning
- Executing the project
1. Selection of the project
The fist steps is the selection of the project work. The students are given some practical problem among them they should select the subject or the project which has a great utility and fulfill the practical need of the pupils. . in this process teacher guides and motivates them to keep on the right path.
Next step of project method is the proper planning. The students should do planning and the teacher will guide them and help them in their planning work. A discussion may be held where all the students express their views and gives suggestions in the discussion. And the teacher may points out the problems related to this project. This discussion of proper planning may be written by the students in their project copy.
3. Executing the project
In this steps student executes the project work according to their blueprint or planning. The students themselves assign various duties among themselves according to individuals interest and capacities. Every students contributes something for the completion of the this project. They will collects data, visits place to place, and peoples gathers information, reads history etc. thus a chain of activities are done by the students. And the teacher will guide and provide necessary information and help them to keep go in the right direction.
In this steps the whole work is to be reviewed and the students judge or assess their performance, whether they carried out the project according to the planned or not. What are the mistakes they have done in this process of activities all are noted down. In short in this steps the work is evaluated.
Next steps after evaluation is recoding. Here all the activities connected with the project must be recorded. students planned, their discussion, duties, criticism of their own work and of course some important point regarding this project for references.
Merits of project method
1 Project method emphasis on learning by doing. Students themselves involves in the activity which helps in enhancing their thinking capacity, skills and first hand experiences.
2 In project method teacher works as a guide and the whole activity is carried out by the students themselves which increase self-reliance and self-responsibility of students.
3 Project method also helps to form a habit of self learning.
4 In this method students works collaboratively with their group. Which makes the learning interesting meaningful and significance.
5 Project method helps to develop a sense of brotherhood, cooperative attitudes and other social qualities.
6 It develops communicative skills as the students get an opportunity to express himself fully and freely.
7 this method also develops a democratic feelings in them. Nothing is impose upon students the decision are arrived democratically.
8 It develops the student’s critical thinking.
Demerits of project method
Though the project method is a modern approach of teaching. Which is a child-centric it has some disadvantages. Some of the common disadvantages arte given bellow-
- Project method neglects drill work students do not get adequate drill in reading, spelling, drawing etc.
- It is a time consuming process.
- Lake of experience teacher: to complete a project successfully very learned efficient and resourceful teachers are needed.
- Project method is not suitable for all subject.
- This method is not suitable for lower classes, as the complete project is carried out by the students themselves so it fits for the higher classes and not the lower level.
- Project method is carried out in a natural setting which is not possible for all the time.
- Project method of teaching is very costly.
Principles of project method:
1. Principle of definite purpose
The purpose of the project must be fix and clear why is he doing certain things?. The purpose motivates the learners to reach his goals. An interest can not be attain by aimless and meaningless activities.
2. Principle of freedom
There should not impose any activity on the students. The desire for an activity must be spontaneous. The students should be free from any restrictions, imposition etc. so that they can express themselves fully and freely.
3. Principle of activity
Activity is the another principle of project method. Project itself is a purposeful activity. The students must learn something after this activities (learning by doing).
4. Principle of experience
In this students learn things by doing or experiencing things. Experience is the great teacher. Here students should learn new facts or information through experiences.
5. Principle of utility
The knowledge is worthwhile only when it is useful in day to day life. The project which is to be carried out must be useful to the pupils as well as the society.
6. Principle of reality
The project must be real and should have a link in real life situations. So that students can carry out the project and complete it in a natural settings. The imaginary problems can not be taken in the project work.
7. Principle of social experience
Children is a social being and have to prepare them for the active social life. A project should focus on the dvelopment of social qualities in the students. A good project emphasis on the social needs and developments and usefulness of the society as well as its people.
Types of project method
William killpatric (father of project method) gives four types of project. They are-
1 Produces type project:
It is also known as costructive project. The aim of this project is to produce materials or things. In this project students work physically they makes a chart , model etc.
2 Consumer project:
Consumer project is also called as aesthetic project. Appreciation power of students are develop through this project. The main aim of this project is to provide joy and experience. For examples presentation of music, decorating of the hall etc.
3 Problamatic project:
This type of project helps to find out the solution of a problem. Here students learns to solve the life related problems for examples, how can we protect the environment etc.
4. Drill project:
The main aim of this type of project is to provide knowlwdge and skills. Student’s capability, ability, skills are trying to develop. For example drilling in singing, swimming etc.
Thus this is a modern approach of teaching. It has some principles, merits and demerits and the types and steps of project method which has been discussed above. If you like this article please share and leave us a comment. Thank you.