Types of Evaluation | Formative Summative and Diagnostic

Types of Evaluation: Evaluation is a systematic collection and analysis of data in order to assess the strength and weakness of an educational program, policy on organization in order to improve its effectiveness. In this article you will know what is evaluation in education. types of evaluation used in education process and purpose evaluation. Formative and Summative evaluation .Read the full article to know all about evaluation system.

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What is evaluation?

Evaluation is judging the worth or quality of something by comparing data to a standard unit. It is a systematic collection and analysis of data in order to assess the strength and weakness of an educational program, policy on organization in order to improve its effectiveness.

 Evaluation is the act of using judgment in order to determine the value of an item in reference to certain model. There are many definitions of evaluation some of the important selective definitions are mention below to make the concept clear.

”According to Bradfield and Moredock: Evaluation is an assignment of symbols to a phenomena in order to characterize the worth or value of a phenomena usually with reference the some social, cultural or scientific standard,”

“According to Gronland and Linn: evaluation is a systematic process of collecting analyzing and interpreting information to determine the extent to which pupils are achieving instructional objectives.”

  • Also read: Types of Measurement in Education

Purpose and Functions of evaluation

The process of evaluation plays a crucial role in education system as well as in our life. It is the evaluation through which one can differentiate what is good and what is bad. In education how much a pupil has succeeded in his aims can determine by evaluation. The main purpose or function of evaluation is mention below…

  1. Diagnosis: it the main purpose of evolution diagnosis means to identify the learner’s strength of weakness. This helps to provide suitable remedial measures for the given group of learners.
  2. Prediction: prediction is the purpose of evaluation it helps to identify the potential abilities and aptitudes among the test. The national talent search test is design the meet this purpose.
  3. Selection: it is the purpose of evaluation when it helps to choose the right person for the right courses. I.e. the entrance test to different courses.
  4. Grading: the process of providing grades to the learner it helps to rank-order the learners of a given group. Generally the terminal examinations of a course serve this purpose.
  5. Guidance: evaluation is also done to provide proper guidance or to assist a person in making decisions about course and career. Also read: Importance of Guidance and Counseling.

Types of Evaluation in Education

There are mainly four types of evaluation in education.These are-

  1. Placement evaluation
  2. Formative evaluation
  3. Diagnostic evaluation
  4. Summative evaluation

What is Placement Evaluation?

 Placement evaluation as the name suggests it is design to place the right person in the right place. It judges the entry performance of the learner. The success of the instructional process depends on the success of placement evaluation. The main objective of such evaluation is to determine the position of the learner in the instructional sequence.

Sometime previous knowledge, which inspire for present learning, also lead to the further placement in a better position or admission. It is helpful for admission of pupils into a new course of institution. For example Medical Entrance Exams, Aptitude test etc.

What is Formative Evaluation?

Formative evaluation that take place during the process of instruction. Its main objective is to provide continuous feedback to both the teacher and the students concerning learning success and future while instruction is in process.

The goal of formative evaluation is to supervise student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be use by instructions to improve their learning.

Formative assessment helps student identify their strength and weakness and target areas that need to work.

Summative Type of Evaluation

Summative evaluation or productive evaluation. It takes place at the conclusion of an instruction to know what extent the objectives previously fixed have been accomplish d.

Summative evaluation is used chiefly to grade student’s achievement that provides information about how students have changed with respect to the aim in view. It provides a basic for assigning divisions or grades after the end of the session.

  The primary aim of summative evaluation is to evaluate students learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it with some standard. For example: midterm examination, a finale project a senior recital etc.

What is Diagnostic evaluation

In diagnostic evaluation the student’s learning difficulties or weakness are identified during the course of instruction. It attempts to discover the specific areas of weakness of the pupils in a particular course of instruction and also tries to provide remedial measure.

Diagnostic evaluations are organized in different ways. They may be administered in schools under a department or particular classroom settings. It is also use within the settings of an educational institution or on state or national levels.

In short diagnostic evaluation is used to determining the current levels of knowledge and skills of students.  This type of evaluation is best at the initial point to get an overall idea into the learner’s stage of learning.

Reference books:

  • Measurement, Evaluation And Assessment In Education by Agrawal Publication
  • Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education (B.P.Ed. Latest Syllabus Based) by Sports Publication
  • Test, Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education: Textbook of Physical Education M.P.Ed

Thus, Evaluation is simply means to evaluate something. It is a systematic collection and analysis of data . Evaluation is to assess the strength and weakness of an educational program, and tries to improve its effectiveness. there are four types of evaluation which we have already discussed above. Among them formative and summative evaluation is use mostly. Formative evaluation in education means to evaluate during the process of teaching . it provides continuous feedback which helps further improvement it is very effective evaluation.

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